Bone disease and HIV
Bone is the living tissue that is continually replacing old bone with new bone during your life. But if the formation of new bone doesn't keep up with removing old bone, the bones get less durable and lose some of their energy. The bones can be more likely to break after a small ride, or fall. It is natural for the bone formation process to slow down as you age, making bone problems more frequent in older people. Bone problems are common particularly for women who have had menopause. HIV-positive people can experience these problems as they age. The word medical for this disorder is osteoporosis. It means the bones are less strong, they have lost some of their strength and a greater risk of fracture (a broken bone) is present. Recent studies of the impact of HIV infection on bone metabolism did not indicate a significant rise in the incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among HIV-infected patients relative to patients without HIV infection, although the strength of their findings was limited by small sample size. HIV replicates mainly in CD4 + T lymphocytes and monocyte / macrophages which cause severe immunological impairment. In addition to the immune system, HIV infection has a complex pathogenesis that affects tissues and organs such as the kidney, liver, central nervous system, heart, and bone. Over the last two decades, the introduction and widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a marked increase in the treatment of HIV disease, but viral infection cannot be eradicated because HAART does not remove the viral reservoirs entirely. HAART has significantly modified the trajectory of HIV infection from a lethal infection to a chronic disease which can be reasonably controlled. The increased life expectancy of HIV patients and the effects of HAART changed the way HIV infection is managed. The major bone lesions detectable in HIV patients are related to bone demineralization (osteopenia/osteoporosis and osteomalacia) and osteonecrosis. This review tells about the future scope of the new invention towards the field of HIV /AIDS and their medicinal treatment. People who are interested can send their article towards our journal for publication through this link https://www.scholarscentral.org/submissions/hiv-aids-research.html.