Diversity of HIV Subtypes worldwide
AIDS is a global pandemic caused by two genetically related lentiviruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, which were transmitted from non-human primates to humans through multiple cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses. Such distinct zoonotic viral transmissions produced different classes of HIV-1: M (Major), O (Outlier), N (non-M, non-O) and the latest group P. The root of HIV-1 was recorded around Kinshasa in today's Democratic Republic of Congo in the 1920s, from where it spread to other places in sub-Saharan Africa, West Africa, Europe, and the rest of the world through a distribution network. A geographically established distribution of many genetically distinct viruses marked this global spread. Subtype B, for example, has become dominant in virtually every part of Europe and the Americas, while a number of subtypes and intersubtype recombinants are found in Africa with the highest recorded diversity in West Central Africa. Although group M viruses have dominated the global HIV pandemic since its inception, there has been little spread of other group N, O and P viruses. Group M viruses are further composed of nine subtypes (A-D, F-H, J, K). The genetic distance within a subtype may be between 15% and 20%, while the genetic distance between subtypes is typically between 25% and 35%. While viral introductions have been recorded elsewhere in Europe (Portugal and France), India and the United States of America, HIV-2 remains largely restricted to the western part of Africa. The dynamic change in HIV subtype distribution presents future challenges for diagnosis, treatment and vaccine design and development. An increase in recombinant viruses suggests that coinfection and superinfection by divergent HIV strains has become more common necessitating continuous surveillance to keep track of the viral diversity. This review tells about the future scope of the new invention towards the field of HIV /AIDS and their medicinal treatment. People who are interested can send their article towards our journal for publication through this link https://www.scholarscentral.org/submissions/hiv-aids-research.html.