Host genes Essential for HIV replication and infection


Host genetics has been of great interest in the field of HIV / AIDS since the discovery of the role of CCR5 aller32 in disease progression resistance and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Further findings suggest that the susceptibility to HIV-1 comprises a major component of heredity. In vitro, the analysis of cells from large pedigrees — immortalized B lymphocytes from multigeneration families — allowed > 50 percent of the observed differences in cell susceptibility to transduction with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotype HIV-1 vector to be identified as a host genetic contribution. Genome-wide association studies: The HIV field was among the first to accept the opportunities provided by new technologies that allowed genome-wide association studies (GWASs). There were advantages and drawbacks to this method, which tests 500,000 to 1 million genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP) for each person. Vaccine Genomics: A particularly attractive use of GWASs is in understanding differences in the response to immunogens between individuals. Although the genomics of the vaccines are in its infancy, some initial applications were reported. A GWAS evaluated the determinants of the HIV-specific T-cell response to the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag / pol / nef vaccine tested in 831 Stage HIV-1 vaccine test subjects as measured by IFN-π ELISpot research. Vaccine genomics can also resolve the selective pressure from human HIV-1 responses to the vaccine-induced T-cell responses. Viral genome regions omitted from the components of the vaccine did not bear distinctive signatures of selective pressure from T-cell responses to HIV-1 infection in humans. Advanced Genome Analysis: While the frameworks and analytical methods for genome-wide genotyping are well developed, it is clear that the GWAS method does not capture all aspects of the host’s effect on HIV infection pathogenesis. Additional data types include the transcriptome and proteome of the cell or person infected. Further techniques use evolutionary and comparative genetic methods to classify the host genes involved in genetic conflict with lentiviral or retroviral pathogens, or large-scale functional genomics using loss-of-function (siRNA) and gain-of-function screens. This review tells about the future scope of the new invention towards the field of HIV /AIDS and their medicinal treatment. People who are interested can send their article towards our journal for publication through this