The antibiotic molecule helps the immune system to destroy cells infected with HIV.


Researchers have been looking for ways to outsmart the lethal virus ever since the first cases of a mystery illness in the early 1980s erupted into the HIV / AIDS pandemic. Today, people living with HIV will live relatively normal lives thanks to anti-retroviral therapy — as long as they take their drugs every day. The explanation is that, lying dormant and ready to emerge at any moment, HIV can hide within the human genome. Because of this, a true cure for HIV depends on waking up and removing the latent virus before it has a chance to take hold of the cells of the body again, an approach known as shock and kill. HIV is an insidious virus with extraordinary expertise for survival. It targets the CD4 cells of the human immune system, a major actor in the body's defence against pathogens. Although drugs have been developed that kill the virus, it is still capable of hiding in the genome, ready to emerge at any moment and cause disease. Those latent viral reservoirs have to be killed if a case of HIV is to be fully cured. Otherwise, patients with HIV have to continue taking drugs that keep the virus at bay. Researchers found decades ago that a protein called Nef can be used by HIV to interact with a cell-surface protein, MHC-1, which usually informs the immune system that a cell is infected with a pathogen and needs to be destroyed. Nef disables MHC-1, and it can keep dividing infected cells. Collins-led researchers decided to target Nef. First, they were looking for a medication that could target Nef which had already been approved. This would potentially restore the usual action of MHC-1, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes could then be used by the immune system as they would naturally recognise and kill HIV-infected cells. In order to break down damaged or unwanted parts, the cell utilises an organelle called the lysosome. If used at the correct concentration, one pleico-macrolide, concanamycin A, will inhibit Nef without inhibiting the lysosome. HIV-infected cells that express Nef have been eliminated by cytotoxic T cells following exposure to concanamycin A in a cell culture model. This review tells about the future scope of the new invention towards the field of HIV /AIDS and their medicinal treatment. People who are interested can send their article towards our journal for publication through this